Vigilance and Security
....at home and at work
This Is A
Note: All prices in US Dollars
Alarm/Event Operation is a feature found in many CCTV video recording devices like VCRs and DVRs. This allows the user to interface alarm sensors (like a PIR motion detector) with the recording device through an alarm in/out port (this port has a physical electrical contact). An alarm/event capable recorder can then be set to automatically start and stop recording when the alarm is triggered (such as by motion). However, the digital revolution is replacing the need for bulky and expensive alarm sensors. Many newer digital DVR recorders feature advanced video motion detection, which can provide dynamic motion detection recording with built-in software alone.
Amplifier typically refers to a device which adds strength to a signal for a 'better' and/or longer performance ability. Amplifiers can be found for both wired and wireless equipment. A VDA (video distribution amplifier) is designed to extend a video signal through wires by boosting the power of the video signal. Transmitter-end and receiver-end amplifiers can be found for wireless equipment to help increase broadcast range potential.
Aperture of a lens on a video camera controls the amount of light which is allowed to reach the image sensor. Aperture is listed in terms of an F-stop number. As the F-stop number increases (i.e. F/1.4, F/1.8, F/2.8), the amount of light permitted to reach the image sensor decreases.
Auto Iris (AI) is an electronic circuit that acts as an iris on CCD cameras by electronically shuttering the CCD sensor. Or An automatic method of varying the size of a lens opening in response to changes in scene illumination.
BNC is the type of connector plug commonly found on CCTV devices for video and audio input/output connections. BNC is the choice for broadcast video and security video professionals because of its locking design. BNC plugs are easily adapted to standard consumer RCA connectors using a simple one-piece plug adapter.
Balance Light Control (BLC) is a method to compensate for bright spots in the picture. It is also important to consider whether there are bright spots in the picture such as car headlights which can make identification of the vehicle registration or model impossible. This can also be a major problem where it is necessary to identify a person who is moving from bright daylight into artficial daylight. This could result in the subject becoming an unidentifiable silhouette.
Bandwidth indicates the complete range of frequencies over which a circuit or electronic system can function with minimal signal loss. In effect, bandwidth indicates the amount of information and its complexity which can be carried over a signal. More complex information requires more bandwidth for an effective signal. (i.e. color video bandwidth is greater than monochrome video bandwidth, which is greater than the bandwidth for one channel of audio).
Black & White (monochrome) Camera - Cameras are available with either color or monochrome image sensors. Monochrome cameras are typically referred to as black and white because video image they produce is in shades of gray. Only black and white CCD cameras have the ability to utilize IR infrared lighting. Also, even without infrared lighting, a monochrome camera will generally perform better in low light conditions than will a color camera equipped with a comparable CCD imager, lens, and quality of manufacture.
Bullet Camera - A bullet design refers to a camera with a cylindrical shape using an inline video imaging chip (rather than a board design). These cameras are sometimes also called "lipstick cameras" or "inline CCD cameras."
CCD stands for charged coupled device. This is a solid-state semiconductor element which uses hundreds of thousands of tiny pixel elements to accept light and translate that information into a vivid, visible picture image. A CCD is one type of camera image sensor. CCDs produce MUCH higher resolution, lower light sensitivity, and better overall video quality than CMOS imagers (also commonly found in CCTV industry cameras).
CCIR is the standard monochrome video format used in most of Europe, Israel, and some other places in the world. CCIR products are also generally referred to as PAL because all PAL products can also handle black and white CCIR video. Camera models using the PAL/CCIR video format are common in special applications for users outside the US.
CCTV stands for closed circuit television: a video system which will only be monitored in a closed environment (as opposed to public broadcast). The realm of video security and surveillance is also referred to as CCTV.
CMOS stands for charged metal oxide semiconductor. This is one type of camera image sensor which uses a charged metal surface to detect light and create a video image. CMOS technology is often smaller than CCD chips are currently capable of, so these cameras can often be quite miniature. Even the highest resolution CMOS cameras cannot compete with newer CCD imagers in resolution, sharpness, and low light performance.
Coaxial Cable is the most common type of cable used for transmitting a video signal through copper wire. This type of wiring has a coaxial cross-section where an outer shielding protects the actual interior signal conductor from electromagnetic interference. In the CCTV industry, the term "coax" usually refers to RG-59 cable with BNC-type plug ends.
Codec refers to an internal computer component which processes analog information (like a video or audio signal) into a digital format such as MJPEG, MPEG-4, etc. for electronic storage on digital recording media. Without a codec in place to compress and digitize video, digital video recording to a hard disk drive would not be possible.
Color Camera - Cameras are available with either color or monochrome image sensors. Color cameras produce video images bearing the entire visible spectrum of colors. And because color CCD cameras have come a long way in recent years, the colors of objects appear vivid, crisp, and distinguished on monitoring and playback of video.
Composite Video is the standard type of analog video signal utilized by most CCTV video cameras. This signal is plug and play compatible with most consumer television and VCR equipment. However, this type of video should not be confused with digital "component" inputs which may ALSO found on newer televisions and other home video equipment. A composite video signal has the correct phase rate, luminance, and chrominance information to be compatible with a particular video format such as NTSC, PAL, EIA, CCIR, etc.
Compression Method refers to the computer software technique the codec in a DVR video recorder (or DVR card) uses to convert the video signal to digital information so it can be compressed and stored on digital media like a hard disk drive, DVD, or CD. Uncompressed video would require massive processing power and nearly unlimited storage capacity and is, therefore, completely out of the question in the real world. MPEG(M-JPEG) is the most common type of compressed digital video, but there are variants of these in addition to other proprietary formats. MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 typically offer the highest quality recording (DVDs use MPEG-2), but smaller file sizes can be obtained by using a lower resolution, more efficient compression method like MPEG-4.
Digital Video Recorder (DVR) - This device is capable of accepting one or more video (and sometimes audio) input signals for recording onto digital storage media. A DVR is basically a computer specifically designed to gather and compress video into a digital video format for storage on a hard disk drive or other form of digital media. DVRs are quickly replacing VCR video recorders for security and surveillance purposes without the need for changing tapes. Key differences between DVR and VCR recorders come to available features. Advanced DVRs are capable of accepting multiple video and audio inputs without the need for bulky and expensive multiplexers or video quads. As well, most DVRs offer built-in motion detection recording (without costly and conspicuous PIR motion sensors), and many can be remotely viewed and played back over the internet. Some models may easily be backed up onto external media for long term archival. These backup methods may include CDs, DVDs, flash media cards, or via USB to a computer or other storage device.
EIA is the standard monochrome video format used in North America, Japan, and some other places in the world. EIA products are also generally referred to as NTSC because nearly all NTSC products like televisions and VCRs can also handle black and white EIA video.
Effective Pixels concerns the operation of a camera's CCD image sensor. A CCD is comprised of hundreds of thousands of tiny pixel elements which translate light to a visible video image. But effective pixels must be distinguished from total pixels. Of the total number of pixels contained on a CCD image chip, some are not used for video imaging whatsoever. The number of effective pixels indicates exactly how many of the pixels are actively at work to deliver video. A higher number of effective pixels tends to indicate a higher resolution camera, though this number may not always describe actual video quality in the important categories of sharpness, color saturation and vividness, as well as low light performance.
Frames per Second (FPS) describes the number of full video frames displayed or recorded within one second. True real time video consists of 30 frames/sec. for NTSC format and 25 frames / sec. for PAL format. Be sure not to confuse frames per second with "fields per second" or "images per second". A complete frame of video is compiled of two separate images (or fields), so the number of fields in one second is always twice the number of frames per second.
FPS Display Rate (a.k.a. screen refresh rate) indicates the number of frames per second a VCR or DVR recorder will display on a monitor for simultaneous viewing. This shouldn’t be confused with FPS Record / Playback Rate. The rate at which each camera is displayed is often NOT the same as the number of frames per second the recorder captures for playback. Many DVR sellers flash "real time display rate" or "30 frames/sec. display rate" but do not in fact offer real time playback of recorded video.
FPS Record Rate describes exactly how many frames per second a video recorder can actually capture. Analog recorders like VCRs can easily record in real time (30 frames / sec. for standard NTSC) or time lapse (fewer than 30 frames/sec. for NTSC). Many digital DVR recorders, however, cannot record actual real time video. For most situations, recording rate is the spec to pay attention to. (Specifications for digital video equipment are not the only numbers to rely on. In fact, many DVR recorders outperform their specifications upon real world testing while other low quality units often record at a much slower rate than their specs claim).
Frequency is the number of competed cycles of an electronic signal that occur in a given length of time. Frequency is usually measured in cycles per second (Hertz, Hz). For most CCTV industry equipment, frequency is used to describe the RF radio frequency at which wireless equipment operates. Frequency can also be used to describe the cycles of electrical current for the signal system.
GHz (gigahertz) is a measure of frequency. 1 GHz = 1000 MHz = 10,000 KHz = 100,000 Hz.
Hard Disk Drive (HDD) is a magnetic media storage device for recording digital information (like that used by computers or digital DVR video recorders).
HDD Capacity indicates the amount of information which can be stored on hard disk drive. This figure is measured in bytes.
HDD Speed indicates the speed at which a hard disk drive is capable of encoding information.
Hz (hertz) is a measure of frequency (indicates cycles per second in an electronic or RF signal).
1 GHz = 1000 MHz = 10,000 KHz = 100,000 Hz.
Image Sensor indicates the type of semiconductor which handles video processing inside of a camera. Older CCTV cameras used tubes to process light information. CMOS and CCD image sensors are the most widely available for security cameras in today's market. CCD cameras provide by far the highest quality video of any type of image sensor.
IR Infra Red Light is a frequency of light which is lower than the human eye's visible spectrum (in the range of 850 ~ 950 nanometers). Color cameras can’t use infrared light. However, this special band of light can be detected by most any monochrome CCD camera. Therefore, a black and white video camera in combination with infra red lighting can see in pitch dark conditions where the human eye is unable to distinguish anything. An infra red light source appears just the same as any visible light source on a black and white camera image. Infra red lighting for monochrome cameras should in no way be confused with new FLIR (forward-looking infra red) spotting scopes or cameras which produce a grainy, green-tinted picture and do not require additional infra red lighting sources.
IR Infra Red Wavelength indicates the specific frequency of light (measured in nM - nanometers) an infra red illuminator emits.
IR Illumination Range indicates the effective range at which a monochrome CCD camera can utilize the infra red light from an illuminator and create an image. Just like visible lights, more intense infra red lighting sources will provide a larger illumination area and range.
KHz (kilohertz) is a measure of frequency. 1 GHz = 1000 MHz = 10,000 KHz = 100,000 Hz.
Lens - A lens is an optical device which bends light, focusing it on onto a image sensor to create a distinct, visible image. All video cameras (and still cameras) need lenses in order to obtain a clear picture. Lenses come in a variety of focal lengths. The focal length of a lens, in combination with the size of the imager, will determine its field of view.
Line-of-sight (a.k.a. LOS) Range refers to the ideal broadcast range of wireless audio/video link (transmitter and receiver) systems. Line-of-sight means the range when there is a visible pathway between the transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna. As well, the line-of-sight specification indicates performance under absolute best conditions. Please be aware that just like home cordless telephones, TV reception, and cellular phone reception, wireless audio/video equipment can often be less than perfect. All wireless products are subject to limitations and vulnerabilities due to many potential variables.
Linux is a computer operating system platform upon which the software for many high quality standalone/network DVR video recorders is based. Due to reliability concerns and software glitches associated with Windows® as an operating system platform, using a PC-based video recorder for security or surveillance purposes isn’t recommended.
Low Light (or low lux) Sensitivity refers to a camera's performance under low lighting conditions. Although many camera distributors flash very low light "lux" numbers, these numbers often times have nothing to do with real world performance. Specifications offered by CCD manufacturers list the absolute lowest light level at which some pixels will be altered. However, a human being looking at that recorded video will never be able to distinguish anything under the lowest lighting conditions (near pitch black). (The latest Sony 1/3 " CCD chip sets have the best low light performance of any such other CCTV cameras on the market today).
MHz (megahertz) is a measure of frequency. 1 GHz = 1000 MHz = 10,000 KHz = 100,000 Hz.
Manual Iris Lens is a lens with a built-in method of manually adjusting lens aperture for the best video quality for a specific lighting condition. Iris control on such a lens is set by hand to a particular fixed aperture, allowing for the best possible (often better than auto-iris lenses) brightness and contrast for a specific camera angle/shot.
Maximum Recording Time indicates the longest continuous duration of time which could be recorded onto storage media using a VCR or DVR video recorder. Maximum recording time for ALL recorders will depend on the user setting for time lapse or real time recording and the amount of storage media capacity. Maximum recording time for DVR recorders is also dependent on resolution settings as well as hard disk drive capacity. Maximum recording time for analog VCR recorders will depend on the size cassette tape, usually VHS, which is installed in the recorder.
Multiplexer (mux) is a video switching device that accepts video input from multiple cameras and converts them to all display on one monitor and/or video recorder, similar to a quad video processor. However, a multiplexer is far more advanced than a simple quad processor. Video multiplexers use time division multiplexing, meaning that a full frame of video from each camera is recorded every few seconds. While multiplexed video does not achieve true real time display or recording (there is a slight drag to the images on playback), multiplexers do offer the capability to change between a view of several cameras and a solid close up view of only a single camera's view on playback of recorded video. When using multiple cameras, quads and multiplexers help to cut down on the amount of additional equipment needed for a dedicated surveillance system. However, DVR digital video recorders with multiple video inputs are quickly replacing quads and multiplexers. DVRs are now capable of doing what required a processor and VCR together to accomplish (plus a whole lot more).
NTSC is the standard color video format used in North America, Japan, and some other places in the world. Black and white EIA video products are also generally referred to as NTSC because nearly all NTSC equipment can also handle black and white EIA video.
Network Operation is a feature of many DVR digital video recorders. This allows the user to connect the DVR system to another computer or computer network for dynamic recording control and playback on other computers. Network operation is also interconnected with remote viewing capability for record and playback features over the internet. However, most network operation features are complex and not intended for most novice users. Connecting a DVR recorder to a PC network may require additional hardware such as a WAN or LAN router in addition to some prior networking knowledge and experience.
Omni-Directional Antenna is an antenna for wireless equipment which sends or receives a propagated radio signal in all directions simultaneously. This differs greatly from a directional antenna which is only capable of sending or receiving information on the same axis as the corresponding antenna on the other end. Omni-directional antennas are great for short range broadcasts because of their versatility. However, high gain directional antennas are recommended for most long range wireless video applications.
Operating System (OS) indicates the basic computer platform a DVR video recorder operates with. DVRs with the Linux Operating System are considered much more stable and reliable for obtaining important video evidence than competing Windows®-based DVR systems.
On Screen Display (OSD) is a method of displaying set-up information or instructions on to a display monitor.
PAL is the standard color video format used in most of Europe, Asia, Israel, and many other places in the world. Black and white CCIR products are also generally referred to as PAL because all PAL equipment can also handle black and white CCIR video.
IR Motion Sensor refers to a motion detector with passive infrared technology. These alarm sensors are often used with alarm/event VCR and DVR video recorders to trigger recording upon the detection of physical movement. However, PIR motion sensors are bulky and expensive. As advanced video motion detection software continues to improve, motion detectors are quickly being replaced with the built-in features of high quality DVR recorders.
Pan refers to horizontal (side to side) dynamic motion of a camera. Any equipment capable of panning can rotate back and forth along a horizontal axis. Some equipment, indicated as "PTZ," has the ability to pan as well as tilt and zoom.
Pan/Tilt/Zoom (PTZ) indicates equipment with the ability to pan, tilt, and zoom, usually by remote user control. Much of PTZ equipment is completely integrated, meaning there is only one controller necessary to operate all three features.
Pinhole Camera indicates a video camera with a tiny pinhole lens built-in standard with the camera.
Pinhole Lens is only 1/16th of one inch in diameter, so cameras with tiny pinhole lenses can easily be hidden for covert video surveillance applications. Cameras with this type of standard lens are typically referred to as pinhole cameras.
Pixel - A camera's CCD image sensor consists of thousands of tiny sensor elements known as pixels. These sensors detect information about light and colors and translate that information into a viewable video image through digital signal processing. Of the total pixels on a CCD imager, some are constantly dormant while others are effective and actively work to create an image.
Power Consumption refers to the amount of electrical current an electrical devices requires for operation, usually measured in amps (A) per hour (often seen in mA milliamps, 1 amp = 1000 milliamps). For example, a miniature video camera which draws 100 mA per hour will consume 1 ampere hour for every ten hours of continuous operation.
Quad Processor is a video switching device that accepts video input from four cameras and converts them to all display on one monitor and/or video recorder. When using multiple cameras, quads and multiplexers help to cut down on the amount of additional equipment needed for a dedicated surveillance system. Digital Video Recorders with multiple video inputs are quickly replacing quads and multiplexers.
RCA is a common connector plug for standard consumer video and audio equipment. This type of connector plug may also be described as a "phono" plug. RCA jacks are found on all VCRs and televisions equipped to handle a composite video input. In most cases, RCA jacks are color coded yellow, white, and red. BNC plugs are easily adapted to standard consumer RCA connectors using a simple one-piece plug adapter.
RF Frequency is a term used to describe radio signals coming inbound to a receiver or outbound from a transmitter (usually wireless). Radio frequency is a term reserved for radio signals at a frequency of more than 150 Hz.
Realtime (or real time) refers to video recorded at the same speed as action occurs (so it may be played back at the speed of real time without drag). Realtime video is phased at 30 frames per second (60 fields per second) for NTSC video and 25 frames per second (50 fields per second) for PAL format equipment. Basically all VCR recorders record realtime video, but most digital DVR recorders do not.
Receiver can refer to two different devices for CCTV. Wired receivers are used to demodulate video for extended video runs of more than one hundred and fifty feet. These receivers convert a video signal (and potentially a power and/or audio signal) from an RF radio frequency signal into composite video for TV display and recording. A transmitter at the opposite end of the wiring first modulates that signal into the RF frequency before sending it to the receiver for decryption. Wireless receivers similarly demodulate video (and sometimes audio) from an RF radio frequency, but this signal is "beamed" from a transmitter through the air without wires. A wireless transmitter sends its video images back to this wireless receiver. 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz wireless transmitters broadcast to matching paired receivers tuned to the same frequencies. 434 MHz transmitters are made to broadcast to any "cable ready" television or home VCR on channel 59 of the CATV band (i.e. a standard television or VCR with built-in tuner serves as the wireless receiver). Because wireless equipment can be quirky (just like cell phone or TV reception), high quality and professional wireless receivers are recommended.
Receiver Sensitivity indicates the sensitivity of a wireless receiver in picking up a good reliable signal from the matching wireless transmitter using the stock antenna. Sensitivity measurements of -75 dB and lower indicate very high gain potential for a wireless receiver.
Recording Media refers to the magnetic storage device used to store recorded video. For many analog recorders this is a tape cassette, but DVR recorders use HDD hard disk drives. CDs and DVDs can also be types of media used to record digital video.
Remote Playback is a feature of many DVR video recorders. This allows users to play back recorded video over the internet from virtually any computer in the world.
Remote Viewing is a feature of many DVR video recorders. This allows users to monitor CCTV cameras over the internet from virtually any computer in the world.
Remote Zoom indicates the ability to adjust a camera's field of view by remote control. Remote zoom may also be described as powered zoom.
Resolution (TV lines) refers to the maximum number of vertical lines/pixel elements (horizontal resolution) a video camera is capable of displaying on a monitor or registering with a video recording device. Horizontal resolution indicates the number of pixel elements placed horizontally across each scanning line of resolution (vertical resolution). Horizontal resolution varies based on the abilities of each different camera and each different monitor. The more lines of resolution per picture, the better the clarity of the overall picture will be. Although the number of TV lines of horizontal resolution is generally considered a measure of a camera's level of detail and sharpness, this specification does not always indicate true end video quality. When choosing a home security camera system, you must consider the resolution of each individual component (camera, monitor, recording device) comprising your home security camera system so you can select components with similar resolution.
Resolution (Scanning lines) refers to something quite a bit different from what is generally considered to be resolution. Scan lines (also referred to as "vertical resolution") of video are equivalent for each different video format, but every device must comply with these standards. Horizontal resolution, on the other hand, indicates the number of pixel elements contained horizontally across these scanning lines. Horizontal resolution varies based on the abilities of each different camera and each different monitor. Video display on a monitor requires the image to be constantly shifting (scanning) in order to display in real time. For instance, NTSC format video is based on a 525 scanning lines operating at a frequency of 60 Hz (PAL format is 625 lines, 50 Hz) for transmission and display of video images. This is an interlaced system in which each frame is scanned in two fields of 262 lines, which is then combined to display a complete frame of video with 525 scan lines.
S/N (Signal-to-Noise) Ratio indicates the ratio of noise to actual total signal (in a video or audio signal generally speaking). The S/N number measures how much higher the signal level is to the level of background electronic noise, so a higher number means a clearer and crisper picture. Signal-to-noise ratio is expressed in decibels (dB).
Scanning System refers to the method in which video information is processed for display on a monitor is an interlaced system in which each frame of video is scanned in two fields on a horizontal line. This type of system is called 2:1 interlace video.
Simplex, Duplex, and Triplex concern the operation of video recorders and multiple camera video processors like quads and multiplexers. Simplex, duplex, or triplex capability reveals the number of device capacities which can be used simultaneously. For instance, a simplex device is only capable of performing one type of task at a time, whether that be recording or playback. A duplex device can perform two simultaneous functions like record and configure the monitor display for a certain close up view. Triplex devices are capable of three tasks at the same time (usually record, playback, and zoom or other display functions).
Total Pixels concerns the operation of a camera's CCD image sensor. This number measures the complete count of pixel elements on a camera's CCD image sensor. This number should not be confused with effective pixels, which can provide a more telling description of a camera's resolution.
Tilt refers to vertical motion of a camera. Any equipment capable of tilting can move up and down along a vertical axis. Some equipment, indicated as "PTZ," has the ability to tilt as well as pan and zoom.
Time lapse is a feature of most CCTV-industry VCR and DVR video recorders. Time lapse refers to recording one still video image (frame) at fewer than 30 frames per second. The speed of this recording can usually be adjusted. Time lapse video is therefore slower than real time recording and has a drag when the video is played back. One advantage of time lapse recording is the ability to increase maximum recording time so longer periods of time can be captured on a video tape or digital hard disk drive media. However, a major disadvantage of time lapse recording is missing many frames of video and missing much of what happens during a given period of time. There is no way to recover these missed frames on playback. For the ultimate in surveillance, real time video recorders deliver the most complete and accurate video information of what occurred.
Transmitter can refer to two different devices for CCTV. Wired transmitters (sometimes called modulators) are used to modulate video for extended video runs of more than one hundred and fifty feet. These transmitters convert a video signal (and potentially a power and/or audio signal) into an RF radio frequency signal. A receiver at the opposite end of the wiring demodulates that signal back into traditional composite video for compatibility with standard equipment. Wireless transmitters similarly modulate video (and sometimes audio) into an RF radio frequency, but this signal is "beamed" through the air without wires. A wireless transmitter sends it video images back to a wireless receiver. 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz wireless transmitters broadcast to matching paired receivers tuned to the same frequencies. 434 MHz transmitters are made to broadcast to any "cable ready" television or home VCR on channel 59 of the CATV band. Because wireless equipment can be quirky (just like cell phone or TV reception), high quality and professional wireless transmitters are recommended.
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is a special type of power supply commonly found in the security industry. This power supply is used to back up the system for ten minutes or more in the event of a main power failure. The time duration of this available emergency power depends on the size of the UPS and the current power consumption of the equipment in use.
Varifocal Lens This lens allows the user/installer to manually adjust the camera's field of view. Varifocal lenses can therefore be changed to provide wider viewing angles or narrower telephoto viewing angles. Because of their adjustability, varifocal lenses are great when a camera will serve more than one purpose or to ensure proper focus without first determining an exact fixed lens focal length. Varifocal lenses are also typically referred to as zoom lenses.
Video Input Plug indicates the plug size and configuration used for a device's video input. The most common types of plugs for composite video are BNC, RCA, and 1/8" mini.
Video Motion Detection is an advanced software feature of DVRs which can detect motion in a camera’s field of view and begin recording based on this motion detection. This is an advanced software feature which can detect motion in a camera's field of view and begin recording based on this motion detection. This type of detection can in most cases be adjusted in sensitivity. As well, a user can select and deselect areas in each camera's view for motion detection function.
Video Output Type refers to the type of video a camera or other device will output for display, recording, etc. on another device. The majority of consumer video equipment is made for compatibility with composite video. For use with S-Video, RGB component video, VGA, or other specialized/digital video formats, an adapter or converter may be required.
Video Output Plug indicates the plug size and configuration used for a device's video output. The most common types of plugs for composite vidoe are BNC, RCA and 1/8" mini.
Watts (W) are used to measure electrical energy. In some cases, this measure RF radio frequency energy output. In this circumstance, "watts" is most commonly applied to the RF output power of wireless A/V transmitters. For these types of devices, a higher number of milliwatts of output power indicates a more powerful (and usually further broadcasting) transmitter. However, "watts" can also be used to measure electrical power consumption. In order to calculate watts, simply multiply the number of volts a device uses by the number of amps it consumes. 1 amp (A) = 1000 milliamps (mA).
Weatherproof equipment has been specifically designed for safe use in most outdoor weather conditions. However, weatherproof equipment should not be considered waterproof because it is never intended for submersion under water. At the same time, there may also be extreme weather conditions which even standard weatherproof video equipment cannot function properly.
Wireless Operation refers to "beaming" a video and/or audio signal through the air without wires from a transmitter element to a receiver element. However, wireless equipment does still have some wires. All electronic devices need a connection to a power source (input voltage) to function. At the same time, plugs and wires are also necessary to attach a wireless transmitter to a camera or microphone. There will also be wires required to plug the wireless receiver into a monitor or recording device.
Wireless Camera is a term used too frequently in the CCTV, and especially miniature camera, industry. Any product touted as a "wireless camera" is simply a camera integrated with a wireless transmitter.
Zero Lux Operation refers to video imaging in pitch black (0.0 lux) lighting conditions. Monochrome CCD cameras can use IR infra red lighting to yield crisp and distinguishable video images when absolutely no visible light is available.